Real Estate

A - C
D - F
G - I
J - L
M - O
P - R
S - U
V - Z

Absorption Rate The rate at which available space in a real estate market is filled by tenants or buyers, often used to gauge market demand and potential growth.

Anchor Tenant A major tenant, typically a large retailer or corporation, that leases a significant portion of a commercial property, attracting other tenants and driving foot traffic. 

Cap Rate Compression A phenomenon where cap rates decline, leading to higher property values due to increased investor demand or improved market conditions.

Capitalization Rate The rate used to determine the value of an income-producing property by dividing its net operating income by the purchase price or appraised value.

Cash Flow The net income generated by a property or investment after deducting expenses and debt service payments, providing investors with steady income.

Cash Sweep A mechanism that directs excess cash flow generated by a property to repay outstanding debts before distributing profits to equity investors.

Cash-on-Cash Return The rate of return on an investment property that compares the annual pre-tax cash flow to the amount of money invested.

Core Property A low-risk, income-generating property with stable cash flows and little need for major improvements, often considered a long-term investment.

Core-Plus Property A property that combines core stability with some value-add potential, offering moderate risk and potential for enhanced returns compared to core assets.

Cross-Collateralization Using multiple properties as collateral for a loan, allowing lenders to have a claim on multiple assets in case of default.

Debt Fund A pool of capital raised from investors to provide loans secured by real estate properties, managed by a private equity firm or investment manager.

Debt Fundamentals The basic principles and concepts related to real estate debt, including loan-to-value ratio, debt service coverage ratio, and interest rate calculations.

Debt Service Coverage Ratio The ratio of a property’s net operating income to its annual debt service payments, used by lenders to determine if a property generates enough income to cover its debt obligations.

Debt Yield The ratio of a property’s net operating income to its loan amount, expressed as a percentage, used by lenders to assess the property’s risk profile.

Debt Yield Ratio The ratio of a property’s net operating income to its loan amount, used by lenders to assess a property’s ability to generate sufficient income to cover debt obligations.

Development Feasibility Study A comprehensive analysis that examines the financial, market, and physical viability of a proposed real estate development project.

Distributions Cash or other assets periodically distributed to investors in a real estate investment, typically based on their ownership percentage or preferred returns.

Due Diligence The process of thoroughly investigating and analyzing all relevant aspects of a property, including its financials, legal status, physical condition, zoning, and market factors before making an investment decision.

Equity Multiple The total return on investment, expressed as a multiple of the original equity invested, taking into account both cash flows and capital appreciation.

1031 Exchange A tax-deferred exchange that allows real estate investors to sell one property and reinvest the proceeds into a like-kind property, deferring capital gains tax.


General Partner (GP) The partner(s) responsible for managing and overseeing the operations of a real estate investment, often holding a larger share of the profits and control.

Going-In Cap Rate The initial cap rate used to evaluate a property’s value and potential returns at the time of acquisition. 

Gross Floor Area The total area of a building, including all usable spaces (e.g., apartments, offices, common areas) and often used to determine rentable or saleable space.

Gross Potential Rent The total rental income a property would generate if fully occupied at market rates, without accounting for vacancies or collection losses.

Gross Rent Multiplier (GRM) A ratio used to estimate the value of an income-producing property by dividing its purchase price by its gross rental income.

High Net Worth Individual (HNWI) An individual with a high level of financial assets, typically exceeding a certain threshold, who may invest in private equity real estate for diversification or wealth preservation.

Holding Period The length of time an investor plans to hold a real estate investment before selling or liquidating it, often a key factor in investment decision-making.

Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The annualized rate of return that an investment in a real estate property generates over a certain period, taking into account both cash inflows and outflows.

Joint Venture When two or more parties partner together to invest in a real estate project or property, sharing the risks and profits according to their agreed-upon terms.

Limited Liability Company (LLC) A legal structure that combines the limited liability protection of a corporation with the tax benefits and flexibility of a partnership.

Limited Partnership (LP) A partnership where one or more general partners manage the business operations and decision-making, while limited partners provide capital and have limited liability.

Loan-to-Value (LTV) Ratio The ratio of the loan amount to the appraised value or purchase price of a property, used by lenders to assess the risk of a loan.

Mezzanine Financing Debt financing that sits between senior debt and equity in the capital structure, usually with a higher interest rate and shorter-term than traditional loans. 

Net Operating Income (NOI) The total income generated by a property after deducting all operating expenses, such as property taxes, insurance, maintenance, and management fees.

Off-Market Deal A transaction or investment opportunity that is not publicly marketed or listed, often providing advantages such as reduced competition or potential pricing advantages.

Opportunistic Investment A high-risk, high-reward investment strategy that seeks to capitalize on distressed or undervalued properties with significant upside potential.

Pitch Book A marketing document prepared by investment professionals to present a private equity real estate fund or investment opportunity to potential investors, highlighting the fund’s strategy, team, and track record.

Preferred Equity An investment structure where investors provide capital to a real estate project or property and receive preferential treatment in terms of returns and the event of a liquidation.

Pro Forma A financial projection that estimates the future performance of a real estate investment, typically based on assumptions and market analysis.

Purchase and Sale Agreement A legally binding contract between a buyer and a seller that outlines the terms and conditions of a real estate transaction, including the purchase price, contingencies, and closing date.

Real Estate Cycle The recurring pattern of ups and downs in the real estate market, usually characterized by stages of expansion, peak, contraction, and trough.

Recourse Loan A loan where the lender has the right to pursue the borrower’s personal assets in case of default, providing additional security for the lender.

REIT (Real Estate Investment Trust) A company that owns, operates, or finances income-producing real estate and is required to distribute a significant portion of its taxable income to shareholders.

Repositioning The process of improving an underperforming property to increase its value by making physical renovations, rebranding, or changing its target market.

Sponsor The entity or individual responsible for identifying and managing a real estate investment opportunity, often playing an active role in the project’s development or operation.

Stabilized Property A property that has reached its optimal occupancy level, generating consistent and predictable income, often used as a benchmark for real estate valuation.

Unleveraged IRR The annualized rate of return on an investment, assuming no debt is used in the capital structure, providing a gauge of the property’s standalone profitability.

Value Engineering The process of optimizing a real estate project’s costs and performance by evaluating and reducing unnecessary expenses while maintaining quality.

Value-Add An investment strategy that aims to increase the value of a property by making renovations, adding amenities, or repositioning it to attract higher-paying tenants.

Value-Added Fund A type of private equity real estate fund that focuses on acquiring properties with the potential for enhancement, such as renovations or repositioning.